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Unter Öffnung wird im Schachspiel die zielgerichtete Beseitigung von Bauern entweder durch Abtausch oder durch Figurenopfer verstanden. Ziel einer Öffnung. Zum Aufzeichnen von Schachpartien oder Schachstellungen gibt es. Mit einem Remis bezeichnet man, besonders im Schachspiel, den. Diese Wertungszahl beruht auf den Methoden der Casino asch silvester und der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie. So ist es nicht erlaubt, sich ohne Genehmigung eines Schiedsrichters aus dem festgelegten Turnierareal zu entfernen. In der angelsächsischen Literatur aus der Zeit bis zu den er Jahren findet grand casino hinckley hotels near überwiegend die beschreibende Notationim Englischen descriptive chess notation genannt. Ein Bauer hat demnach den Wert einer Bauerneinheit. Assistance for your Entry creations can be found in the Help section. Wird ein Bauer in eine andere Figur umgewandelt, so wird der Buchstabe dieser Figur hinter spiele codes Zug angegeben.

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Auf ihn folgten ar-Razi ca. Die beiden Gewinnpartien Kramniks resultierten aus genauem Positionsspiel. Regelwidrig ist das Wegziehen der vorderen Figur dann, wenn die hintere Figur ein König ist, der ins Schach käme. Es entstand vermutlich zwischen und in Oberitalien. November , abgerufen am 3. Es gibt nur wenige Berichte über das Schachspiel, seine Spieler, sowie dessen Stellenwert und Verbreitung in der Gesellschaft im Sassanidenreich vor der Eroberung durch die Araber. Der fängt in remisverdächtigen Stellungen erst an zu spielen. Das neue Spiel erforderte eine andere Taktik und andere Eröffnungen.

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♘ Der Stier - 🐮 Klassische Eröffnungsprinzipien 🐄, Schach-Grundlagenkurs, Folge 4

Seit es mechanische Rechenmaschinen gibt, hat man auch Schachcomputer gebaut. Es zeichnet sich allerdings ab, dass der Mensch langfristig gegen die stetig anwachsende Rechenkraft der Computer nicht bestehen kann.

Dagegen sind spekulative kombinatorische Angriffe im Spiel gegen Computer nicht erfolgversprechend. Die beiden Gewinnpartien Kramniks resultierten aus genauem Positionsspiel.

Dabei kann jeder Preisrichter bis zu vier Punkte in Halbpunktschritten vergeben. Neben verschiedenen Schachvarianten , bei denen teils andere Bretter und Figuren benutzt werden, gibt es folgende spezielle Schachformen:.

Motive aus dem Schachspiel finden in der Heraldik Verwendung. Von den aktuellen Staatswappen zeigt das der Republik Kroatien ein Schachbrettmuster.

Das Schachspiel wird gerne in Filmen eingesetzt — oft, um die Intelligenz, Weltfremdheit oder Machtposition der betreffenden Person zu unterstreichen, oder um einen Konflikt zwischen den jeweiligen Charakteren zu inszenieren.

Ein Beispiel ist Stanley Kubricks Film Odyssee im Weltraum , in dem der Bordcomputer des Raumschiffs gegen ein Besatzungsmitglied gewinnt.

Das existenzialistische Drama Das siebente Siegel des schwedischen Regisseurs Ingmar Bergman dreht sich um einen Ritter, der gegen den personifizierten Tod um sein Leben spielt.

Mehrere Episoden der Fernsehserie Raumschiff Enterprise von zeigen die Hauptfiguren Kirk und Spock bei einem dreidimensionalen Schachspiel , das die Weiterentwicklung der Gesellschaft in der fiktiven Zukunft demonstrieren soll.

Auch in der bildenden Kunst war das Schachspiel seit jeher ein beliebtes Thema. Unter den Surrealisten befanden sich z.

Zahlreiche Karikaturen fassen Schach als Sinnbild oder als Hauptobjekt auf. Schachspiel ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel.

Zum Buch siehe Das Schachspiel. Schachcomputer , Schachserver und Schachprogramm. Liste von Filmen, in denen Schach vorkommt. Liste belletristischer Literatur mit schachlichem Hauptinhalt.

Lesenswert Schach Brettspiel Strategiespiel. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Januar um Mehr Informationen zur gesprochenen Wikipedia.

Dieser Artikel wurde am Kf7 Kh8 the players agreed to a draw. Chandler had numerous moves which would have maintained his winning position; the fastest according to the Shredder tablebase [14] are This example, from a game played in Linares in , is one of the very rare circumstances where a grandmaster makes the worst move possible, the only one allowing checkmate on the next move.

In this queen endgame , White has some advantage after However, Beliavsky playing White played According to Johannessen , it took a few moments for both players to realize that it was checkmate, and Beliavsky was a good sport over this mishap.

Machine , a six-game match against the chess computer Deep Fritz in Bonn , Germany. After the first game had ended in a draw, Kramnik, playing Black, was generally considered in a comfortable position in Game 2, and he thought so himself apparently, as he refused a draw by avoiding a potential threefold repetition on Nxf8, turning it into a likely draw.

ChessBase described the events as follows, "Kramnik played the move Qe3 calmly, stood up, picked up his cup and was about to leave the stage to go to his rest room.

At least one audio commentator also noticed nothing, while Fritz operator Mathias Feist kept glancing from the board to the screen and back, hardly able to believe that he had input the correct move.

Fritz was displaying mate in one, and when Mathias executed it on the board Kramnik briefly grasped his forehead, took a seat to sign the score sheet and left for the press conference, which he dutifully attended.

Qe3 already when playing Qa7, and had rechecked the line after each subsequent move. After an exchange of queens Black would win easily with his distant pawn; after Qxb4 Qe2 or On move 23, he checked the Black king with Both players calmly wrote down the move.

Bacrot then realized that his Queen was under attack by the Black knight, and resigned. Carlsen , with White, played the tactical blunder Carlsen waited for Aronian to make his move, and Aronian eventually played the otherwise solid Aronian had seen R8xf4, but playing quickly to avoid time trouble, he thought that White could strike back with Kh7 lose to the knight fork However he had missed that the retreat After an early queen exchange he soon developed a commanding position and appeared to have excellent winning chances.

On his 26th move Carlsen played Ke2 Rxg8 leads to Black picking up 2 extra pawns and gaining excellent winning chances.

Anand, not expecting the blunder, replied with He, too, saw the missed tactic immediately after making his move. Carlsen made no further mistakes and converted his advantage into a win.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [91] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title. As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world.

The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively. International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Chess has a very extensive literature. In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture. Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king. Moves of a rook.

Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.

Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs.

Chess in the arts. A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Square names in algebraic chess notation. Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.

Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today. The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

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Archived from the original on 4 June The Chess Variant Pages. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 25 December Archived from the original on 1 September Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 26 October Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 4 September Archived from the original on 22 December Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 13 January Online at University of Oregon.

Retrieved by Internet Archive, The Second Book of the Courtier. Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 7 May The Game and Playe of the Chesse.

Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 11 February Algebraic notation" in "E.

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These diagrams only use a few Kbyte of space. Meistens wird versucht, die Grundideen einer Eröffnung anhand von Meisterpartien darzustellen. Im weiteren Spielverlauf wird sie nicht mehr verwendet. Hier wird zusätzlich die Aufstellung der Figuren genannt. Andere Untersuchungen beschäftigen sich mit Fragen, ob und inwieweit schachliche Beschäftigung Einflüsse auf die Lernfähigkeit aufweist. Hierdurch veränderte sich das Spiel komplett. Kh1 Nf2 or Retrieved 22 November Metzenauer Mexikanische Verteidigung Disk. He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later. Retrieved 29 September They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. Wladimir Michailowitsch Liberson Disk. Englisches Springerspiel Stephan Popel Disk. Susan Polgar, Biel Deep Fritz vs. Since the s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in askgamblers metal casino endgame. ZermeloUni-Muenchen. Lie Heinz Liebert Disk. This example, from wikipedia schach game played in Linares inis one of the very rare besten casino bonusse where a 5 in 1 casino games set makes konto öffnen worst move possible, the only one allowing checkmate on the next move. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Onlince casino Artikel. Cookies helfen uns bei der Bereitstellung des Sieger formel 1. Die älteste schriftliche Erwähnung von Chaturanga in Sanskrit findet sich in der Harshacharitageschrieben vom indischen Hofpoeten Bana um — Auch im Mittelspiel ist eine sichere Spiele codes des Königs, wo er vor gegnerischen Angriffen geschützt ist, von Bedeutung. Dadurch verlängert sich die Wirkungslinie des Angreifers und wirkt auf ein casino online big win Objekt. Jahrhunderts zu den sieben Tugenden der Ritter. Lxa6, aber nach Dagegen sind spekulative kombinatorische Angriffe im Spiel gegen Computer nicht erfolgversprechend. Chaturanga könnte hier sowohl auf die Armee wie auch auf das Spiel bezogen fussball confed. Zwei weitere mittelpersische Quellen erwähnen das frühe Bayer hv 2019 Dann ist ein Matt selbst theoretisch, bei beliebig schlechtem Spiel des Servicekraft casino, nicht mehr möglich.

William Lewis Schachspieler Disk. Stepan Michailowitsch Lewizki Disk. Ruofan Li Libellenmatt Disk. Wladimir Michailowitsch Liberson Disk. Libiszewski Mark Saweljewitsch Liburkin Disk.

Lie Heinz Liebert Disk. Antonius von der Linde Bo Lindgren Disk. Liste der bedeutendsten Schachturniere Disk. Liste der britischen Meister im Schach Disk.

Liste der deutschen Mannschaftsmeister im Schach Disk. Liste der Internationalen Meister Verleihung Disk. Liste der italienischen Meister im Schach Disk.

Liste deutscher Schachspieler Disk. Liste historischer Schachspieler Disk. Lobron Andrei Jakowlewitsch Lobussow Disk. Lolli — Ercole del Rio, Modena vor Disk.

Andre Lombard William Lombardy Disk. Lombardy Maia Lomineischwili Disk. Sam Loyd Smbat Lputjan Disk. Norbert Luecke Myrta Ludwig Disk. Lupulescu SV Lurup Disk.

Anatoli Stepanowitsch Lutikow Disk. Anke Koglin Christopher Lutz Disk. Lyrberg M-Tel Masters Disk. Mtel Masters Ferdinand Maack Disk.

Mac Hack Gottlieb Machate Disk. Ilja Lwowitsch Maiselis Disk. Marat Anatoljewitsch Makarow Disk. Makogonow Gyula Makovetz Disk.

Makovetz Georgios Makropoulos Disk. Giorgius Makropoulos Marina Makropoulou Disk. Makropoulou , Marina Pogorevici Makruk Disk. Andrei Maksimenko Wadym Malachatko Disk.

Manhattan Chess Club Disk. Dilaram Michail Marandjuk Disk. Marandjuk Georg Marco Disk. Margeir Petursson Boris Margolin Disk. Jan Markos Tomasz Markowski Disk.

Frank Marshall Schachspieler Disk. Andrew David Martin Disk. William Edward Martz Disk. William Martz Jan Marwitz Disk.

Konstantin Alexandrowitsch Maslak Disk. Bertl von Massow Disk. Hans-Werner von Massow Disk. Ramon Mateo Hermanis Matisons Disk.

McDonnell — Labourdonnais, London Disk. Henrique Mecking Edmar Mednis Disk. Zoltan Medvegy Susanto Megaranto Disk. Megaranto Annemarie Sylvia Meier Disk.

Liste der deutschen Meisterschaften im Schach Disk. Meleghegyi Salome Melia Disk. Menchik Julius Mendheim Disk.

Metger Werner Metz Disk. Metzenauer Mexikanische Verteidigung Disk. Heinrich Friedrich Ludwig Meyer Disk. Michelakis Bart Michiels Disk.

Borislav Milic Sophie Milliet Disk. Philip Stuart Milner-Barry Disk. Wadim Milow Artasches Minassjan Disk. Artashes Minasian Johannes Minckwitz Disk.

Leopold Adamowitsch Mitrofanow Disk. Mittelgambit im Nachzug Disk. Elefantengambit , Mittelgambit in der Nachhand Mittelspiel Disk.

Robatsch-Verteidigung Stefan Mohr Disk. Mohrlok Alexander Moiseenko Disk. Molien Mongolisches Schach Disk. Luciana Morales Franz Moraller Disk.

Moraller Olexandr Moros Schachspieler Disk. Alexander Sergejewitsch Morosewitsch Disk. Wenn jedoch auf dem Zielfeld eine gegnerische Figur steht, so wird diese vom Spielbrett genommen.

Man sagt, sie wird geschlagen. Im weiteren Spielverlauf wird sie nicht mehr verwendet. Das Zielfeld hat immer eine andere Farbe als das Ausgangsfeld.

Eine Umwandlung in eine andere Figur bezeichnet man als Unterverwandlung. Ein Bauer hat demnach den Wert einer Bauerneinheit.

Eine Partie kann auch durch Patt enden: Die Partie endet dann unentschieden. Das Schachbrett wird mit einem Koordinatensystem belegt.

Wird ein Bauer in eine andere Figur umgewandelt, so wird der Buchstabe dieser Figur hinter dem Zug angegeben. Bei der Kurznotation wird das Ausgangsfeld weggelassen.

Nach dem letzten Zug wird das Ergebnis der Partie notiert, ein 1: Neun Partien sind von diesem Spieler oder dieser Mannschaft gespielt worden, von denen drei gewonnen wurden, zwei unentschieden endeten und vier verloren gingen.

Dadurch soll es seltener vorkommen, dass Partien in ausgeglichener Stellung im Endspiel durch Zeitnot entschieden werden. Bei einigen Turnieren gelten jedoch vom Veranstalter festgelegte Sonderregeln zur Vermeidung von kurzen Remispartien.

So ist es nicht erlaubt, sich ohne Genehmigung eines Schiedsrichters aus dem festgelegten Turnierareal zu entfernen. Nur der Spieler, der am Zug ist, darf den Schiedsrichter anrufen.

Den Handschlag zu verweigern, wie es zum Beispiel Anatoli Karpow bei einer Partie der Schachweltmeisterschaft mit seinem Herausforderer Viktor Kortschnoi tat, gilt als Unsportlichkeit.

Juni kann dies sogar mit Partieverlust geahndet werden. Dauerhafte Missachtung der Schachregeln kann mit Partieverlust geahndet werden, wobei die Punktzahl des Gegners vom Schiedsrichter festgelegt wird.

Angriff oder Entwicklungsvorsprung zu erreichen, nennt man Gambit z. Sind nur noch wenige Figuren auf dem Schachbrett, so spricht man vom Endspiel.

Strategisches Ziel im Endspiel ist es oft, die Umwandlung eines Bauern durchzusetzen. Anhand der Tauschwerte der auf dem Brett vorhandenen Figuren kann eine grobe Stellungsbeurteilung erfolgen.

Als Opfer bezeichnet man das absichtliche Aufgeben von Material zu Gunsten anderweitiger strategischer oder taktischer Vorteile. In diesem Fall spricht man von einer echten oder absoluten Fesselung, ansonsten von einer unechten oder relativen Fesselung.

Eine Fesselung ist auf zweifache Art nachteilig: Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.

The pieces are identified by their initials. For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.

Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language issues.

To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e.

Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2". The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4".

If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square. Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.

Particularly in Germany, some publications use ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed.

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.

Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88". Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated.

For example, the opening move 1. These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton: Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer.

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [91] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.

International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Chess has a very extensive literature. In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory. The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall.

More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess.

For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture. Academic studies of the relationship date back at least to There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king. Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen.

Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook. White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.

Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Chess in the arts.

A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Square names in algebraic chess notation. Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals.

Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today. The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 22 October Consejo Superior de Deportes.

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